Monday, 20 August 2018

The latest BGS Innovation Bootcamp – geology and heritage...by Katy Lee

Katy Lee leads the Hazard & Resilience Modelling Team at BGS, focusing on the development of BGS data products and innovations. In our latest GeoBlogy she tells us about the recent BGS Innovation Bootcamp on geology and heritage. 
 

Who was involved?

The BGS and Historic England (HE) have been developing joint research ideas at an ‘innovation boot camp’, held at BGS in July.

Researchers from Historic England’s Strategic Research and Partnerships Team and BGS Hazard & Resilience Modelling (HARM) Team came together to discuss new research collaborations and innovative ideas.

Part of the HARM Team’s strategy is to focus on:
  • Co-development: Explore and develop methodologies with the aim to provide and develop new and pre-existing products and innovative services.
  • Research: Ever-changing research developments result in constantly evolving outputs that product development can draw upon. For example, scientific research, developments in data analytical techniques (particularly fast-moving currently), Commissioned Research for specific users can potentially be scaled up to provide data from the broader community or even into other market sectors, and the development/release of new datasets both internally and externally.
  • Funding opportunities: All development requires funding from either National Capability or other sources and we look to bring in additional income to support our product development activities.

The bootcamp provided an ideal opportunity to explore some aspects of these aims and aspirations.

Some of the team had already had ‘bootcamp’ training last year, provided by no-nonsense innovation company ‘Nonon’, which was a great success so we were able to draw on this experience and some of the techniques for this current event. 

From L-R: Using a lean business canvas ensures we consider all factors, needs and users; Brainstorming in an innovative
 environment


What did we talk about?

We had initially discussed multiple different project or topic ideas and, in preparation for the bootcamp, had narrowed it down to 7, ranging from: coastal change impacts to factors controlling rates of organic decay/preservation of historic artefacts.

On the day, we focussed in on 4 main topics: using historic mining ponds in upland regions for Natural Flood Management; 3D borehole data interpretations for the Anthropocene and Holocene; multihazard impacts on historic assets; and Coastal vulnerability.


What did the day involve?

We used tools and techniques for developing lean business models, stakeholder analysis, and personas. This enabled us to identify research themes that we could take forward and investigate in more detail. After a short introduction, the day soon swung into action and everyone became very busy. Initial discussions soon developed into fledgling ideas and then a little more information could be added. Lots of post-it notes and whiteboard doodles were employed throughout the day. We also had a brilliant team of ‘artists in residence’ to help communicate ideas through drawings and sketches.
  

What were the results?

At the end of the day, each team presented their idea in a 5-minute elevator-pitch and a group vote decided that the 3D deposits/borehole interpretation idea was the winner! This idea will be taken forward by BGS and HE and developed into a feasibility project. Congratulations not only go to the 3D deposits team but also to everyone who took part, it was a fantastic day with much success and lots of ideas that we can now build on. Well done everyone.

From L-R: More coffee!...finalising the idea; Heritage and hazards: one of the sketches used to 'pitch' the idea

Wednesday, 15 August 2018

Investigating natural and human impact on Eastern Australia wetlands…by Melanie Leng

Nick, Mel and Jamie at the currently dry Coalstoun lakes.
For 3 years Melanie Leng has been working with researchers from the University of Adelaide and University of Queensland on understanding natural and human impacts on sensitive wetlands along the eastern Australia coastline. With the team from Adelaide, Mel has previously helped develop climate records from the leaves of the paperbark trees that are preserved in North Stradbroke Island lakes. Here Mel tells us about a recent repeat visit to eastern Australia…

The impact of recent climate change and humans on sensitive ecosystems in Australia is a hot topic. I have teamed up with researchers from the University of Adelaide and University of Queensland to combine our expertise to try and solve some of these questions. In August, I first went with researchers from University of Queensland to the Coalstoun Lakes area, North of Brisbane. The Coalstoun lakes formed within old volcanic craters which last erupted 600,000 years ago (yet they are still amongst the youngest volcanoes in Australia). There is still evidence of the basalt lava around the craters. The track up the side of the dormant volcano runs through prickly shrubs and thicket, and the lakes area is a refuge for many birds (being surrounded by agricultural land). The forest around the crater comprises bottle trees, ash and tea-trees. Interestingly the two crater lakes were dry when we visited in August (dry/mid-winter), which is an unusual occurrence and may be an indicator that the lakes are at a critical point in their evolution (i.e. filling up with sediment) during a particular dry spell. We have taken cores of sediment through the lakebeds and plan to reconstruct past climates, and hope to better understand the causes of long-term variability of water availability in eastern Australia. This will help understand drought risk, critical for the sustainability of agriculture, the security of urban water supplies (especially for the greater Brisbane metropolitan area) and for power generation. In addition, through improved understanding of the long-term ecological dynamics and human impacts at Coalstoun Lakes, this study will also generate improved management outcomes for Coalstoun Lakes National Park. This research is being led by PhD student Nick Patton who is based at University of Queensland but with supervisors at University of Nottingham and the British Geological Survey. Look out for Nick’s future blogs!

Blue Lake on North Stradbroke Island.
I then went back to Brisbane and took the ferry to North Stradbroke Island to meet with colleagues from the University of Adelaide. We visited Blue Lake (so called because the water quality reflects the sapphire colour of the amazingly clear blue skies). Blue Lake is thought to be untouched by human impact (due to its connection to a deep and extensive aquifer under the island). The theory being that Blue Lake sediments should provide information on centennial and millennial changes in the sources of rainfall over the eastern Australian continent. Ultimately, we need to understand where and when the aquifer was filled and current recharge rates in order to protect the ecology of the island and monitor human impact. This research is being led by Charlie Maxson who is a joint PhD student between the University of Adelaide, the University of Nottingham and the British Geological Survey. Look out for Charlie’s future blogs!

Thanks to Prof Jamie Shulmeister and Nick Patton (both University of Queensland), and Associate Prof John Tibby, Dr Cameron Barr, Dr Jonathan Tyler and PhD students Haidee Cadd and Charlie Maxson (all University of Adelaide), as well as staff from the Queensland Department of Science, Information, Technology and Innovation for their collaboration.

From L-R: Koala on North Stradbroke Island; A rare Barking Owl in Coalstoun Lakes National Park.
Melanie Leng is the Director of the Centre for Environmental Geochemistry at the BGS and University of Nottingham. Follow Mel on twitter @MelJLeng.

Sunday, 12 August 2018

Working with elephants: ice breakers, interviews and interpreting data...by Fiona Sach

I have just returned from a brilliant three week trip to Southern Africa, to present at the 34th International conference of the Society for Environmental Geochemistry and Health (SEGH). The conference was held in Livingstone, Zambia on the theme of ‘Geochemistry for Sustainable development'. (See Michael Watt's blog for more information on the conference). It was followed by a quick trip to South Africa to collect elephant tail hair and faecal samples (see my earlier blog) to be brought back to the UK for preparation and multi-element analysis at BGS.

During the conference icebreaker at the Royal Livingstone Hotel, I was invited to give an interview to the Zambian Times, explaining about my PhD research and the application that results from my research may have in the future, to aid in human-elephant conflict resolution. The following day, it was extremely exciting to see the conference featured within their newspaper and on local television.

At the conference I presented some initial data from recently conducted fieldwork showing how the phosphorus levels in the soil at the mine site are significantly higher than that sampled in the surrounding areas outside of the mine site. This supports the working hypothesis of the project, that African elephants (Loxodonta Africana) are being drawn towards a mining area just outside the Kruger National Park in South Africa, due to the unique geochemistry of the area. Previous studies have suggested that the soil in areas surrounding the mine, and associated plant samples may be low in minerals such as phosphorus, causing a deficiency in the plants, and driving the elephants to seek these minerals elsewhere. It is therefore thought that the elephants may be drawn towards to the mining area due to the mineral provision in the plants, soil and water. Unfortunately, elephant incursion into the mine and nearby human settlements has resulted in human-elephant conflict, causing risk of injury and loss of income. It is hoped that the results of the project may help to inform key locations in the elephants’ home range where mineral-supplemented forage or mineral licks may be placed to reduce the drive to seek additional sources of minerals, thereby reducing human-elephant conflict.

Mineral and potentially toxic element (PTE) levels will be compared within and between elephant tail hair, blood, faecal and toenail samples, from elephants at the mine site and elephants within the wider national park. These tail hair samples from fifty animals from across the whole of the Kruger National Park, collected opportunistically over the last 10 years and stored within the SANParks Biobank, will contribute hugely towards calculating the baseline mineral and PTE levels in the species and help identify any key differences to the elephants living around the mine site. I am very excited to start working on analysing these tail hairs and beginning to interpret the data, especially as mineral levels in elephants has not previously been examined in matrices such as tail hair and toenails. Tail hair and toenails are potentially easier to collect and store in the field than blood and could offer a practical solution to assessing mineral status in the animal, both free-living and within captivity.

Method validation was made possible for this study by using samples from 20 elephants housed at 5 UK zoos. The zoos kindly donated a multitude of samples from their elephants and the environments in which they live, to enable identification of the optimum matrix for reflecting mineral profile in the species. The zoos in turn will benefit from knowledge exchange and will be able to see how mineral status in captive animals compares to wild counterparts. This may enable identification of any potential mineral deficiencies and enhance captive health and welfare.

I would like to thank the SANParks Biobank and South African National Parks Authorities (SANParks) for contributing samples to this work, and for hosting me at their lab in Skukuza to prepare the bio samples for transport to the UK. 

 

Friday, 10 August 2018

34th SEGH International Conference on Geochemistry for Sustainable Development...by Michael Watts

Michael Watts provides an insight into the 34th SEGH International Conference on Geochemistry for Sustainable Development that he recently attended at the Avani Victoria Falls Resort, Livingstone, Zambia from 2nd to 7th July 2018.

Delegates attending the annual Society for Environmental Geochemistry and Health (SEGH) conference were treated to a spectacular conference venue alongside the Zambezi and Victoria Falls in Zambia. Thankfully we were treated to an engaging and varied programme of 45 oral presentations and 46 poster presentations to avoid VicFalls becoming a distraction to the 100+ delegates from all over the world during the scientific programme, with the following themes:
  1. Industrial and Urban Development
  2. Agriculture
  3. Health
  4. Technologies
Whilst we had specialist presentations within each theme from the impact of mining to highly focussed talks about laboratory methods and mechanisms for nutrient/pollutant pathways, delegates also had a very healthy debate about corporate and social responsibility (CSR) for mining. Discussions were also had on ethics in science, with an audience participation talk from Kate Millar-University of Nottingham to round off the conference. In addition, presenters discussed activities where environmental sciences crossover with human and animal health. Presentations covered possible links between geochemistry and cancer from IARC-WHO, use of data for hazard-risk assessment criteria for contaminated soils and air pollution to implications for nutrient deficiencies and exposure to potentially harmful elements effecting wildlife.  Implications for food production and food safety were discussed due to fertiliser overuse, urban development, pollution and with an ever increasing theme on fisheries, in particular the value of aquaculture to provide food/nutrient sufficiency, but also implications for antimicrobial resistance in fish (AMR). Conservation Agriculture to promote crop resilience and improve their micronutrient content. Laboratory method/technology development, with applications on improving the understanding of mechanistic pathways for pollutants or nutrients were discussed using isotope tracers and/or elemental speciation, along with organic pollutants, biomarkers for ecological and human health monitoring.  Overall, each session was well attended throughout.

Poster presentations

Poster presentations were run across two evenings with social events, preceded by 90-second flash presentations, which generated a great deal of amusement with the delegates, given the competitiveness of the presenters to beat the clock – otherwise the audience would applaud at 90-seconds. This approach was certainly a big factor in helping to generate a relaxed atmosphere at the conference and encourage interaction between disciplines and levels of experience.  This made for two vibrant poster sessions giving the presenters the much deserved attention and recognition posters require, where often valuable nuggets of scientific progress are to be found at conferences.

Training Day

Many thanks to the volunteers who provided the training workshops on day 4 following on from three days of presentations.  The morning began with parallel sessions on an Introduction to QGIS given by Dr Daniel Middleton (IARC-WHO) alongside ‘Embedding Ethics in Experimental Design in Geochemistry Research’ by Dr Kate Millar (University of Nottingham), followed by ‘Reviewing manuscripts and getting published’ by Professor Jane Entwistle (Northumbria University).  The afternoon followed with an ‘Introduction to R’ by Professor Murray Lark (University of Nottingham) in parallel with ‘Epidemiologic study design and interpretation’ by Dr Valerie McCormack and Dr Joachim Schuz (IARC-WHO).  Given that the courses followed the conference programme and BOMA dinner, they were well attended with 18-20 in each of the technical courses and 11-16 in each of the vocational courses, with >50% of the participants from Africa.  Another blog will follow on the SEGH website to describe further outcomes from the training courses and how we will link these into the setting up of an Early Career Researchers group – more on this later.

Prizes

Prizes were awarded to Elliott Hamilton (British Geological Survey) and Lin Peng (Cancer Hospital of Shantou University Medical College) for best Oral presentations and to Nswana Kafwamfwa (Zambia Agriculture Research Institute-ZARI) and Mumba Mwape (ZARI) for best Poster presentations.  Springer-Nature Publications provided book vouchers for 2 x $250 for Oral presentations and 2 x $150 for Poster presentations.

Social programme

The evening before the conference presentations started we held an ice-breaker at the Royal Livingstone Hotel alongside the Zambezi.  A stunning setting to relax delegates and get them mixing with one another.  Local media were present, with an article about the conference and SEGH appearing on page 2 of the Zambia Times the next day and interviews with delegates shown on local TV the following night – see @SocEGH Twitter for newspaper article #SEGH2018.

Days 1 & 2 were rounded off by the poster sessions, with food and drinks, leading up to the BOMA-conference dinner next to the Zambezi, some 100m upstream of Victoria Falls.  The food provided something for everyone, with a delicious braai accompanied by a local performing traditional dance and music, which gradually swept up even the most self-conscious people to dance the night away.  The willingness of everyone to let their hair down and have fun was quite something, truly down to the warmth and fun you find in Africa.


The fieldtrip incorporated a trip to a cultural village centre which I have to admit I didn’t attend, but I heard that it was an enriching visit to understand some of the local culture and to be welcomed into people’s homes – perhaps others can explain.  However, I did make the finale of the fieldtrip, the sunset cruise on the Zambezi.  This was a fantastic way to round off the conference with a gentle trip upstream along the Zambezi attempting to spot wildlife on the banks with nice food and drinks, which of course led to more music and dancing on the boat.  Many people continued their travels connecting with friends and family to make a holiday of the visit to the Victoria Falls region for wildlife viewing or crazy activities like bungee jumping or rafting the Zambezi.

SEGH Business

Whilst a lot of new connections were made and old cemented during the conference, SEGH also had a number of key tasks to perform for its future structure.  Most of all, that included restructuring the international board to have four representatives from each of the European, Americas, Asia/Pacific regions and to set up a new section in Africa to fill a gap in multidisciplinary communities.  Nominations will be called for shortly, with elections soon after.  We will ask for greater contributions from members to drive the society forward, this could be ad hoc for information gathering or if members want to participate on the advisory council or through the Early Career Researchers (ECR) group.  SEGH2018 was a big step in setting up the ECR, for which Jane Entwistle set out future plans to develop a programme of mentorship, training opportunities and interaction over a three year supported period whereby ECR members will be connected with appropriate SEGH members.  We have an initial grouping of 25 ECR’s from SEGH2018 to develop the programme, which will become available to others to balance the demographics as we establish the programme.  We also see this grouping as a test bed and for generating new ideas to develop SEGH, improving communication with social media and hopefully for succession management to run SEGH in the future.  ECR’s will have an opportunity to develop through to a Fellowship status for SEGH (FSEGH), as will senior researchers who have been engaged with SEGH for a number of years.  Jane Entwistle will follow up with more information on this later.

SEGH Journal

We reported that the impact factor for the SEGH journal, Environmental Geochemistry and Health (EGAH) increased again this year to 2.99, continuing its success as a home for multidisciplinary science.  Members can access the journal through the log-in button on the front page of www.segh.net Delegates, please remember we have a special issue in EGAH for the conference.  Please indicate your interest by the 20th August.  We will aim for a submission date of 12th October.

Thanks

Many thanks to the people who helped to bring together the conference – there were many!  We had a lot of encouraging words about the conference, please do post any comments on Twitter.  In particular, many thanks to the sponsors who helped in keeping the social programme inclusive for all delegates – Agilent Technologies, First Quantum, Trace2O-Wagtech, Retsch, Spectro-Ametek and Chemetrix.

Future

We look forward to a strong programme of conferences next year, with SEGH 2019 moving to Manchester in the UK, SEGH involvement in ISEGH in China, China-Ireland Cooperation in Galway-Ireland and we hope to run some smaller 1-2 day meetings in Africa and elsewhere to maintain engagement with members – if you have some ideas, do let us know.  Keep in touch with SEGH events through the website and do offer your scientific updates, comments or stories to www.segh.net and through @SocEGH on twitter and upcoming pages on Facebook.  We will post an updated version of the SEGH2018 conference abstract book in a week or so to account for the last minute changes to the programme – see https://segh2018.org


Michael Watts is Head of Inorganic Geochemistry at the University of Nottingham - British Geological Survey Centre for Environmental Geochemistry.

Wednesday, 8 August 2018

Scientists are people too: mentoring with the Social Mobility Foundation...by Coleen Murty

Coleen Murty is a PhD student funded through the BGS University Funding Initiative (BUFI) who has been taking part in the Social Mobility Foundation mentoring scheme. Many BUFI students are involved with activities outside their research such as volunteering and outreach programmes, making them much more rounded and contributing further to their personal development skills. Being a world leading geological survey, the BGS is dedicated to working for the benefit of society and thus, improving the social mobility of young people wishing to pursue a career in environmental sciences is highly relevant to what they do. 

The UK has one of the lowest social mobility indexes and highest inequality in the developed world. A low ability child from a high income family is 35% more likely to be a high earner than a high ability child from a low income family. Today employers focus on past academic ability/polish rather than potential, and gender/ethnicity rather than socio-economic background.

The Social Mobility Foundation (SMF) are a charity which aims to make a practical improvement in social mobility for high-achieving young people from disadvantaged backgrounds. Every year the SMF supports over 1500 year 12/S5 students across the UK, who have the ability to flourish at top universities and professions but lack the encouragement and networks to help them get there. This is my main reason for becoming a mentor with the charity in April 2018 and is the first time I’ve ever been part of such a rewarding and influential scheme that makes a positive difference to young people’s lives all over the UK. In addition to the mentoring scheme, the SMF offers other services as part of their programme such as helping students get industrial work placements etc.

Being a mentor allows me to share the knowledge and experiences I’ve had specialising in a science-based discipline and encourage future generations to pursue their chosen career path. This not only improves the skills, knowledge and confidence of a bright young person, it also allows me to develop my communication and feedback skills.  Mentoring gives you the opportunity for self-reflection, looking at how you got to where you are and what you’ve learned.

The process of mentoring generally involves providing an insight into a professional career which the student aspires to enter as you are likely to be the only person/one of the few people they’ve ever met in the sector and thus, your role as a mentor is invaluable to them. The SMF pair you with your mentee based on your profession and career sector they wish to enter.  The mentoring cycle runs for one year and mainly consists of communicating through email and possible meetings if your mentee is based in the same city (which isn’t always the case). As a mentor you can use different approaches to help your mentee reach their goals; this could be anything from providing insights of university life, giving advice on applications, personal statements or subject-specific guidance etc. Being based in Newcastle, all my e-mentoring work takes place here however the charity provides options to attend local/national meet ups where you can meet your mentee. The flexible mentoring approach allows email communications with your mentee to be as often as weekly or fortnightly, however the charity do prefer if this is at least once every fortnight so the mentee can really benefit from continual guidance and encouragement.

Overall, I highly recommend this scheme, it’s just one of the many support services offered by the SMF to help these school students in every way they can, plus it’s great to be involved with something out with the research as it can get isolating at times! The charity also provide support to mentors as we aren’t expected to know everything! So even if you’re not sure how to answer a question or provide guidance on personal statements (as it was a long time ago – I know mine was!), there is always someone there for advice in case its needed.


If you would like to know more about the Social Mobility Foundation, visit their website. There are many ways to get involved including: mentoring, providing work placements, offering venues and speakers for events etc. The charity are currently active in; Birmingham, Leeds, Liverpool, Newcastle, Glasgow, Manchester and London. However, they are working on regional expansion to reach students and professionals in areas with high social mobility issues.

To sign up for the next mentoring cycle with the Social Mobility Foundation then just click here.

Coleen Murty is supervised by Dr Christopher Vane (BGS) and Dr Geoff Abbott (Newcastle University). The aim of BUFI is to encourage and fund science at the PhD level. Currently the BGS supports over 100 PhD students based around 35 UK universities and research institutes. 

Friday, 3 August 2018

An in-depth look at rare earth elements from Romania...by Victoria Honour

Victoria on fieldwork in Romania
I was lucky enough to work with the BGS for the research component of my MSc in Mining Geology at the Camborne School of Mines. After a whirlwind fortnight of fieldwork in north-east Romania (see my previous blog) I started looking at the rocks we collected in much greater detail than the naked eye allows. Through a combination of microscopy and geochemistry, my project aimed to provide an overview of rare earth element (REE) mineralisation from both a magmatic and hydrothermal perspective.

Rare earth elements are vital to many of today’s technologies, from electronics to green technologies; markets such as wind turbines, light technologies, hybrid and electric cars are all forecasting rapid growth in the coming years and so REE demand will rise. Ironically, REEs are not rare, their abundances in the crust are comparable to elements such as copper and bismuth. The name merely surmises the difficulties chemists first had in separating the elements from each other, and this still presents challenges for the minerals extractive industry today.


REE production and supply is dominated by China. In 2017 they supplied 95% of the world's REE. There is a global drive to reduce reliance on China for REE and the EU is providing encouragement for a domestic REE industry. 

One such, lesser known, European rare earth element deposit is where my project was focused: the igneous Ditrău Complex in Romania. It is an intrusion of magma within the earth’s crust (ca. 19 km diameter), which solidified over 200 million years ago. What makes it interesting to economic geologists is a series of carbonate veins, 1-2 m wide, enriched in REE. There are also occurrences of niobium and molybdenum within the intrusion.

Since finishing my MSc I’ve started my PhD, so writing everything up into a paper had to take a bit of backseat, but finally… our paper on the Ditrău Complex has been published! Below is a little summary of our main findings from the open access (!) paper, so if you're interested, you can read the paper in full here.

From fieldwork observations we began to see that the intrusion had been emplaced in a broadly horizontal magma chamber, which had subsequently been tilted towards the east during a large-scale mountain building event (the Variscan orogeny). The tilting meant that on fieldwork, we had a fantastic transect across the range of crystallised rocks: from the most mafic (low SiO2 contents) in the north-west to the most evolved (high SiO2) in the east. The south east of the area was really interesting: the rocks were highly altered and through a combination of field observations and geochemistry, we identified this as the roof zone of the solidified magma chamber.

This turned out to be an important observation; from previous work, the Ditrău Complex is known to have had co-existing magma and fluid phases, i.e. a hydrothermal system developed during the latter stages of crystallisation. In our geochemical results and petrography, we saw evidence of this fluid using mafic dykes as pathways, or chimneys, up through the crystallising mush, leaving a characteristic geochemical and
petrological ‘fingerprint’ of alteration. These fluids leached a range of economically interesting elements from the rocks they passed through. Ultimately, the buoyant fluids reached the top of the intrusion (the roof zone) and were deposited along fractures in the rock, plausibly due to pressure decreases. These fractures are rich in minerals such as zircon and pyrochlore. In this area of the Ditrău Complex, the most common rock we picked up on fieldwork was dusty white with a spider web of criss-crossing red fractures.

The major REE mineralisation is hosted in carbonate-rich veins that crosscut the Ditrău Complex. We wanted to establish if these veins were crystallised from the same fluid that altered the roof zone of the complex. To do this we looked at the chemistry of a particular mineral: apatite. This is a great mineral, apart from being what your teeth are made out of, it is distributed throughout the Ditrău Complex so we could use the apatite crystals to establish if they crystallised from liquids of different compositions. Crucially, these REE-rich carbonate veins are compositionally distinct from the other rocks, including the altered roof zone. So the complex had a late-stage REE- and carbonate-rich fluid that cut through the crystal mush. The source could be a later carbonatite emplaced below the complex, but this hypothesis needs to be further explored. If you’re curious about what carbonatite looks like, Ol Doinyo Lengai, "Mountain of God" in the Maasai language, is the only place on earth erupting a carbonate magma today.

This work was funded by the EURARE project, which aimed to set the basis for a European REE industry. Work on the samples collected from the Ditrău Complex is continuing, and part of this work hopes to characterise the different ages of areas of economic interest.

Wednesday, 1 August 2018

Charging ahead: decarbonisation and the rise in demand for metals to build electric vehicles...by Andrew Bloodworth

Chevrolet Bolt EV (Andrew Bloodworth)
Driven by concerns about climate change, air pollution and energy security the world is undergoing a fundamental transition towards a low carbon future. Decarbonisation of transport is key to this transition and many nations are actively promoting the change from internal-combustion engine (ICE) powertrains to electric vehicles (EV). Many countries, including the UK, have ambitious plans for all new vehicles to be zero emission by 2050 or earlier. In 2018 the UK Industrial Strategy and Automotive Sector Deal outlined the support that the government will make available for development of the EV sector in the UK. However, this strategy so far fails to consider future demand for raw materials and how supplies will be secured.

In order to function EVs require a powertrain (electric motor) and a means of storing energy (a lithium-ion battery (LIB) or hydrogen fuel cell). The raw materials needed for these devices are very different to those used in conventional ICE vehicles. Electric motors utilise high-strength magnets made from rare earth elements (REE) such as neodymium and dysprosium. LIBs require several raw materials including lithium, cobalt, nickel, manganese and graphite. Hydrogen fuel cells require platinum group metals (PGM). The quantities of these materials used are substantial: a typical family-size EV (such as a Chevrolet Bolt)  has a battery which contains about 10 kg lithium, 24 kg nickel and 63 kg graphite and a motor with about 1 kg of neodymium and dysprosium. An EV will contain about 80 per cent more copper than the equivalent ICE vehicle. In addition substantial amounts of copper, cobalt, nickel and other metals will be required for power generation, grid storage and charging infrastructure.

Lithium battery pack from a Nissan Leaf EV (Evi Petavratzi/ Gus Gunn)
Since 2010 global EV sales have grown rapidly, led by China and followed, at some distance, by USA, Europe and Japan. However, the EC predicts that the European battery market could be worth up to EUR 250 billion from 2025 onwards . Future growth is difficult to quantify, but the International Energy Agency forecasts  that the global EV stock might grow from 3 million cars in 2017 to 220 million by 2030. This growth will create substantial additional demand for the raw material needed in powertrains and energy storage systems. Some of these materials (notably cobalt, REE and PGM) are classified as ‘critical’ . Global production of some, such as lithium and cobalt, will have to grow by orders of magnitude in order to satisfy the predicted growth in EV manufacturing.

Sampling from cobalt-bearing crust on the Tropic Seamount,
eastern Atlantic Ocean (Pierre Josso/ Paul Lusty)
All these materials are ultimately derived from the Earth’s crust and without them there would be no manufacturing and no recycling. In order to establish and maintain a UK EV industry that includes the manufacture of batteries and powertrains it is essential to have timely and responsibly-sourced long-term supplies of the essential raw materials. Given the current uncertainties related to global trade and that many countries have similar aims, the UK must ensure material supply security to implement the low carbon transition and to meet climate change and air pollution targets.

BGS is building a strong UK and international reputation in this rapidly-evolving area. Working with academic and industry partners we have won a number of substantial research grants related to critical raw materials from NERC, EU H2020 and InnovateUK. BGS is also active in providing technical advice on this topic to inform policy makers in the UK (BEIS, GO-Science, Cabinet Office, DIT), as well as the European Commission.

BGS science capabilities in this topic area include:
BGS-led field team investigating rare earths associated with alkaline
magmatic rocks, northern Madagascar (Kathryn Goodenough)
  1. Understanding the origin, transport and concentration of critical metals in the continental crust and deep ocean;
  2. Ecology of metals: global production, stocks and flows of minerals and metals (primary Earth resources and secondary recycled resources), the supply chain for metals and circular economy, supply security and minerals intelligence;
  3. Official Development Assistance: mineral resource governance and capacity-building, artisanal and small-scale mining.
For more information contact Andrew Bloodworth